Population In Wild: 110
The Amur leopard (or Panthera pardus orientalis) is a subspecies of the leopard found in temperate forests between the Russian Far East and China. The species is adapted for both warm summers and cold winters of the region. This big cat has a stocky, muscular build, a thick tail and broad face with small, rounded ears. The dense coat of the Amur leopard ranges from tan to orange in base color, with a white belly. The body of the animal is covered in black rosettes, turning into solid black spots towards the legs and underside. Amur leopards measure 24in to 31.2in at the shoulder and 40in to 54.4in length, with further 32.8in to 36in added by their tail. Females tend to be smaller than males. Males weigh between 70.4lb and 105.5lb, while females are lighter with a weight of 55lb to 92.4lb.
Amur leopards are critically endangered. In 1970 there were thought to be only 30 individuals left in the wild. While habitat degradation and low prey availability are factors threatening their survival, the main reason for their extremely low population numbers is overhunting. This is due to their furs being highly sought after in the fur trade. Captive breeding programmes and conservation efforts mean that their numbers are now slowly recovering. However, despite protective measurements even today the species is under threat from poaching, and the low genetic diversity in Amur leopards that resulted from low population numbers lead to high infant mortality. In 2012, the Russian government declared an area containing 60% of the remaining Amur leopards to be a national park, and conservationists are campaigning to increase the boundaries of this park into the Chinese areas of the leopard's habitat.
Amur leopards are solitary animals and live alone, except for when a mother is raising her cubs.
When in oestrus, a female Amur leopard becomes restless, vocalising and ranging outside her home range in order to attract a mate. A male tracks the female through the scent of her urine, and once he has found her she will engage the male by pacing around him and flicking him with her tail. A couple will remain together for 2-3 days while the female is at her most fertile. During copulation, which lasts only a few seconds, the male may bite the female's neck, which stimulates ovulation. They may mate many times while they are together, before again going their separate ways.
Amur leopards are pregnant for 90 to 105 days, after which they will give birth to a litter between 1 to 3 cubs, with an average of 2. Cubs begin eating meat at 2 months of age and are weaned by 3 months, after which they will begin accompanying their mother on hunting trips.
Juveniles depend on their mother until they are 1.5 to 2 years old, after which they will leave to establish their own territory. While she is caring for a litter, a female will not go into oestrus. Amur leopards reach sexual maturity between 2 to 3 years of age.
Processed meat · Whole Carcass · Calcium Supplement
Amur Leopard doesn't benefit from sharing space with other species.
- The Amur leopard is a strong and skilled hunter and has been known to kill animals much heavier and larger than them.
- The Amur leopard will often hunt large prey and then drag their kill into the branches of a tree to store and hide it.
- The Amur leopard is one of the world's rarest cats; as of 2021 only 110 Amur leopards were estimated to live in the wild.
- The Amur leopard's winter coat is much longer and around 3 times thicker than its summer coat.
- The Amur leopard occasionally vocalizes in short rapid growls to defend territory or announce their presence.